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【小学作文指导】遣词造句细推敲

作者: 互联网 时间: 2018-09-25
小学作文指导:遣词造句细推敲_ 小学作文指导
宋代大文学家王安石,为表达他对钟山的怀念之情,停船瓜州时写了一首《泊船瓜州》。瓜州和长江南岸的京口(现称镇江)隔水相望。诗是这样写的:京口瓜州一水间,钟山只隔数重山。春风又绿江南岸,明月何时照我还。第三句中的绿字,本来是形容词,这里用如动词,系使之变绿之意。一个绿字,就把春风带来的景象非常形象地表达出来了。联系全文,尤其是最后一句,不难看出,作者想说的还有:一年一度,江南岸有了变化,一片盎然春意,充满了欢乐美好的气氛。可是,我官居外地,又过了一年,现在离家已不远,只隔数重山了,却不知何年何月何时才能回家与家人团聚,去过那如江南一样的富有生气的美好生活呢?悠悠思乡怀亲之情跃然纸上。绿字之妙,不言而喻。

据《容斋续笔》等资料记载,这一句中,王安石开始并不是用的绿字,而是先用到字,又用过字,再经过几十次的改动,最后从春风何时至,又绿湖上出和王维的春草明年绿,王孙归不归?几句诗中得到启发,才用了这个绿字。这首诗流传至今,不能不说和绿字的锤炼运用有极大的关系。

在遣词造句方面,近代文人更不乏其例,较之古人毫不逊色。鲁迅的《五律·无题·大野多勾棘》后二句风波一浩荡,花树已肖森中的已字,从初稿到定稿,历时四年,此中甘苦,自不待言。臧克家三十年代的名篇《难民》中,黄昏还没有溶尽归鸦的翅膀一句,其中溶尽一词曾数次改动,先后写作消逝隐去吞没等词语,最后经反复推敲才定为溶尽一词。这简直是在炼意。读毛泽东同志的诗章《贺新郎·读史》手迹,我们发现他老人家自己改动了五个字。流遍了,郊原血的流,原为洒;一篇读罢头飞雪的篇原为遍;天涯过客的涯,原来是涯,后改为穷,又圈去,复改为涯;但记得斑斑点点的记,原是忆, 小学作文;歌来竟的竟原是尽。

以上的故事告诉我们,大凡不朽的名作,都做到了一字未安细推敲。

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